|NutriBase Glossary: Dairy Products|
Acidophilus Milk - Milk that has had lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria added to it. Many experts believe that this addition of bacteria helps restore or maintain "nature's balance" in the digestive tract.
Asiago Cheese - This semi-firm cheese has a rich, nutty flavor. Made from whole or part-skim cow's milk. Young Asiago cheese is used as a table cheese. After it has aged for over a year, it is suitable for grating.
Blue Cheese - This type of cheese has been treated with molds that form blue or green veins that give it its characteristic flavor. Blue cheeses, including Danablu, Gorgonzola, Roquefort and Stilton, tend to increase in flavor and aroma with age.
Bonbel Cheese - A mild-flavored semi-soft cheese sold in small paraffin-coated rounds. It is pale cream in color. Its smooth, buttery texture makes it popular with fruit, sandwiches, and salads.
Brick Cheese - This pale yellow semi-soft cheese comes from Wisconsin and is brick shaped. When young, it has a mild flavor; as it ages, however, it becomes almost as strong as Limburger cheese.
Brie Cheese - This cheese has an edible white rind and a cream-colored, buttery soft inside that should ooze when ripe. French brie is considered the world's best. Made from whole or skim milk.
Butter - Butter is made by churning cream until is reaches a semi-solid state. By U.S. law, butter must be at least 80% butter-fat. The USDA grades butter quality based on flavor, body, texture, color and salt. The grades are AA, A, B, and C.
Buttermilk - Long ago, buttermilk was the liquid that was left after the butter was churned. Now it is made by adding special bacteria to nonfat or lowfat milk. Sometimes, small amounts of butter is added to give it an "authentic" look.
Camembert Cheese - This cow's milk cheese has a white, downy rind and a smooth creamy inside. When ripe, the cheese should ooze thickly. When overripe, it is bitter and rank.
Cheddar Cheese - This firm cow's milk cheese originated in the English village of Cheddar. Color ranges from natural white to pumpkin orange. Flavor ranges from mild to sharp. Orange cheddars are dyed with a natural dye called "annatto."
Cheshire Cheese - A rich, cow's milk cheese that originated in Cheshire county England. This cheese is semi-firm, mild, and has a tangy cheddar flavor. The blue Cheshire has a golden interior veined with blue.
Colby Cheese - A mild, whole-milk cheddar cheese with a softer, more open texture than regular cheddar. Because it is a high-moisture cheese, it doesn't keep as well as many other cheeses.
Cottage Cheese - A fresh cheese made from whole, part-skimmed, or skimmed pasteurized cow's milk. If cottage cheese, which is very moist, is left to drain longer, "pot cheese" is formed. Draining longer still produces "farmer cheese."
Cow's Milk - Most U.S. milk is pasteurized, meaning that potentially harmful microorganisms have been destroyed. Although cow's milk is the most popular, animals such as camels, goats, llamas, reindeer, sheep, and water buffalo also provide milk.
Cream - The rich, fatty part of whole milk that rises to the top and which can be separated from the milk. The longer sweet cream stands, the thicker it will be.
Cream Cheese - A mildly tangy, creamy, spreadable cow's milk cheese. It was developed in 1872 and by law it must contain at least 33% butterfat and no more than 55% moisture. Cream cheese is often combined with herbs, spices or fruit.
Danbo Cheese - A Swiss-style cheese with red or yellow wax rind and a pale yellow interior. Danbo has a mild sweet taste, firm texture, and is dotted with holes. Available in regular and lowfat varieties.
Edam Cheese - This mellow, savory Holland cheese has a pale yellow interior and a paraffin coating. Made from part-skimmed cow's milk, it is Holland's second most exported cheese ("Gouda" is number one).
Egg Yolk - This part of the egg contains all of the fat in an egg. Yolks are a good source of protein, iron, vitamin A, vitamin D, choline, and phosphorus. The egg white is a good source of protein and riboflavin.
Egg - Most eggs come from hens, but duck, goose, and quail eggs are also available. Eggs should be refrigerated in the original container, large end up. Because the yolk is high in cholesterol, imitation eggs come from egg whites and additives.
Eggnog - A traditional Christmas beverage, eggnog is a smooth, cold drink containing beaten raw eggs, sugar, milk or cream, and flavoring. Brandy, rum, or whiskey is often added.
Farmer Cheese - This mild, slightly tangy cheese is a form of cottage cheese from which most of the liquid has been pressed.
Feta Cheese - A rich tangy Greek cheese that is traditionally made from sheep's or goat's milk. Today, however, many commercial producers are using cow's milk. Feta is called a pickled cheese because it is stored in its own whey brine.
Fontina Cheese - An Italian cheese that is semi-soft to firm, made from cow's milk or sheep's milk.
Ghee - Butter that has been melted to separate the milk solids from the liquid on the surface. This liquid is simmered until all the moisture evaporates and the milk solids begin to brown. The result is a clarified butter that keeps well.
Gjetost Cheese - A Norwegian cheese made from goat's and cow's milk whey. The brown color and sweetness are the result of slow cooking the milk until its colors caramelize. Scandinavia's "Mysost" cheese is made using cow's milk only.
Goat's Milk - Goat's milk can often be found canned in supermarkets. Fresh goat's milk is sometimes available in health food stores. This milk is often made into goat cheese, which is better known as "Chèvre."
Gouda Cheese - This is Holland's number one exported cheese. It is mild and has a nut-like flavor that is similar to Holland's number two exported cheese, edam. Some goudas are flavored with cumin or herbs.
Gruyère Cheese - A Swiss processed cheese made from whole cow's milk. Light yellow with small holes. Tastes like Swiss, except a bit sharper.
Havarti Cheese - A semi-soft, mild, yet tangy pale yellow cheese similar to "Tilsit." Named after "Havarti," the Danish experimental farm where this cheese was developed.
Ice Cream - America's most popular dessert, a frozen food made from milk products, sweeteners, and flavorings. The first ice cream was served by King Charles I, around 1640. He ordered the cook to keep the recipe a secret forever. He didn't.
Ice Milk - This dessert is made much the same way as ice cream, but with less milk fat.
Jarlsberg Cheese - A mild semi-firm Swiss-style cheese from Norway with a mild, slightly sweet flavor.
Limburger Cheese - A highly aromatic whole cow's milk cheese with a cream-colored interior and a light grayish brown surface. It originated in Belgium but most of it is imported from Germany. Most consider it an acquired taste.
Mascarpone Cheese - Soft and delicate Italian cream-enriched cow's milk cheese with a high butter fat content. Sometimes blended with other flavors or sweetened with fruit.
Milkshake - An American beverage consisting blended milk, ice cream, and flavorings.
Monterey Jack Cheese - This semi-soft buttery ivory cheese is made from whole, partly skim, and skim milk. It hails from Monterey, California and is also called "California Jack" or "Jack." Somes contain jalapeños and other flavorings.
Mozzarella Cheese - A soft white cheese with a mild flavor. Used on pizzas because of its excellent melting properties. In southern Italy where it originated, it is still made from water-buffalo's milk. The rest of the world uses cow's milk.
Muenster Cheese - The American of this has a light yellow interior and a bland taste that is different from the European originals, which are yellow, semi-soft and have flavors ranging from mild (when young) to very assertive (when aged).
Nacho Cheese - A cheese (usually cheddar) used to top crisp tortilla chips in a Mexican snack called "nachos."
Natural Cheese - The product of thickening milk into a liquid "whey" and a semi-solid called "curd." Normally, the curd is pressed, treated with cultures, and ripened into approximately 18 distinct families of cheese with over 400 specific types.
Neapolitan - A type of ice cream featuring three distinctive flavors, usually chocolate, strawberry, and vanilla. Usually served in slices to display the three different colors.
Neufchâtel Cheese - A soft, white, mild French cheese from whole or skim milk or milk and cream mixtures. Other cheeses that differ mainly in fat content are Bondon, Malakoff, Petit Suisse, and Petit Carré. The Swiss call this cheese "Neuchâtel."
Parmesan Cheese - A dry cow's milk cheese. The world's finest quality parmesan is "Parmigiano-Reggiano." After it is aged 3 years, it is called "Stravechhio." At 4 years, they're called "Stavecchions." U.S. parmesans are aged about 14 months.
Port du Salut Cheese - A semi-soft cow's milk cheese that was first made by 19th century Trappist monks at the monastery of Port-du-Salut in France. It has a mild, savory flavor and a smooth texture that goes well with fruit.
Pot Cheese - A soft, fresh cheese made by draining cottage cheese longer to produce a cheese that is drier. When drained longer still, "farmer cheese" is formed.
Process Cheese Spread (pasteurized process) - This product is "process cheese food" with an added edible stabilizer. The fat content is lower; the moisture is higher. Fruits, vegetables, or meats are sometimes added. It is spreadable at 70 F°.
Process Cheese Food (pasteurized process) - This product is made like process cheese except that in contains less cheese and has added dairy products such as milk, nonfat dry milk, cream, or whey solids. By law, 51% of the product must be cheese.
Process Cheese (pasteurized process) - A product made from one or more natural cheeses that have been ground, heated, and blended with an emulsifier and water until smooth. Pasteurization prevents further ripening and improves shelf life.
Provolone Cheese - An Italian cow's milk cheese with a firm texture and a mild, somewhat smoky flavor. Most provolone is aged 2 to 3 months, but some is aged for a year or more. Aged provolone is often grated.
Raclette Cheese - A cow's milk cheese from Switzerland. It is semi-firm and dotted with holes--similar to Gruyère.
Ricotta Cheese - A soft white cheese product with a slightly sweet flavor. It is made from the whey drained off while making cheeses such as mozzarella. Technically, ricotta is not a cheese because it is made from a cheese by-product.
Romano Cheese - One of several types of Roman cheese, all of which take their name from the city of Rome. The sharp and tangy "Pecorino Romano" comes from sheep's milk. The very sharp "Caprino Romano" comes from goat's milk.
Roquefort Cheese - Called "the king of cheeses," this blue cheese in made from sheep's milk and aged in the limestone caverns of Mount Combalou near Roquefort, France. This cheese is creamy rich and has a pungent and slightly salty taste.
Sour Cream - Also known as "dairy sour cream." This commercial product is made from homogenized pasteurized sweet cream to which a dairy culture has been added for souring.
Sundae - Ice cream topped with syrup, nuts, and whipped cream. In the 19th century, moralists decried the drinking of carbonated beverages--including ice cream sodas--on Sundays. Vendors removed the soda, added toppings, and changed the spelling.
Swiss Cheese - A term for cheeses that have a pale yellow, slightly nutty-flavored flesh and large holes. Switzerland is famous for two cheeses: "Emmentaler," and "Gruyère." Swiss cheeses are prized for their excellent melting properties.
Taleggio Cheese - A rich semi-soft cheese made from whole cow's milk. This cheese is approximately 48% fat and has a flavor that ranges from mild to strong, with the flavor increasing with age. Often served with salads and fruit.
Tilsit Cheese - A cheese that was accidentally created when Dutch immigrants were trying to make "gouda." This mild cheese is made from pasteurized milk. A very strong called "Farmhouse Tilsit" is made from raw milk and is aged 5 months.
Tybo Cheese - A mild-flavored Danish Cow's milk cheese. It features a cream-colored inside that is dotted with holes. This cheese goes well with sandwiches, salads, sauces, and many cooked dishes. Sometimes flavored with caraway seeds.
Whey - The liquid part of milk that remains after the curd is removed. Most whey is further separated with the fattier parts used in making butter. Some whey is used to make "whey cheese" or "Ricotta cheese."
Yogurt - A curdled milk product made acid and thickened by adding bacterial cultures. Fruit-flavored yogurts account for the biggest share of the yogurt market. Originated accidentally by nomadic Balkan tribes, then purposefully to preserve milk.